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Books and Articles

EMTA's 25th Anniversary Booklet


Abbas, Ali S., Pienkowski, Alex and Rogoff, Kenneth. Sovereign Debt: A Guide for Economists and Practitioners. Oxford University Press, 2019.

Banks, Erik. The Emerging Fixed-Income Markets in Asia. Chicago: Probus Publishing, 1994.

Bedford, James (Bank of England), Ostrey, Jonathan D. (International Monetary Fund) and Shiller, Robert (Yale University). GDP-linked Bonds: Rationale and Design. The Centre for Economic Policy Research (CEPR), March 16, 2018.

Blustein, Paul. And the Money Kept Rolling In (And Out): Wall Street, the IMF and the Bankrupting of Argentina. New York: PublicAffairs, 2005.

Buchheit, Lee and Lastra, Rosa. Sovereign Debt Management. Oxford University Press, 2014.
Buckley, Ross P. Emerging Markets Debt, An Analysis of the Secondary Market. The Hague: Kluwer Law International, 1999.

Cardoso, Eliana and Ann Helwege. Latin America’s Economy: Diversity, Trends and Conflicts. New York: MIT Press, 1995.

Cymrot, Mark A. Squeezing Silver: Peru’s Trial Against Nelson Bunker Hunt. Twelve Tables Press, March 30, 2018.

Delamaide, Darrell. Debt Shock. Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Company, 1984.

Edwards, Sebastian. Crisis and Reform in Latin America: From Despair to Hope. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.

Howell, Michael. Investing in Emerging Markets. London: Euromoney Publications, 1994.

International Finance Corporation. Emerging Stock Markets Factbook 1999. Washington, DC: International Finance Corporation, 1999.

International Monetary Fund. International Capital Markets: Developments, Prospects and Key Policy Issues. Washington, DC: International Monetary Fund, 1999.

Krugman, Paul. The Return of Depression Economics. New York: W.W. Norton & Co., 1998.

Landes, David S. The Wealth and Poverty of Nations. New York: W.W. Norton & Co., 1998.

Madrid, Raul L. Over-Exposed. Washington, D.C.: Investor Responsibility Research Center, 1990.

Makin, John H. The Global Debt Crisis. New York: Basic Books, Inc., 1984.

Malkiel, Burton and J.P. Mei. Global Bargain Hunting. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1998.

Marber, Peter. From Third World to World Class: The Future of Emerging Markets in the Global Economy. Reading, MA: Perseus Books, 1998.

Marichal, Carlos. A Century of Debt Crises in Latin America. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1989.

Mobius, Mark. The Investor's Guide to Emerging Markets. London: Pitman Publishing, 1994.

Molano, Walter. In the Land of Silver: 200 Years of Argentine Political-Economic Development. 2013.

Mulford, David. Packing for India – A Life of Action in Global Finance and Diplomacy. 2014.

Park, Keith K. H. and Antoine W. Van Agtmael. The World's Emerging Stock Markets. Chicago: Probus Publishing, 1993.

Potok, Richard. Cross-Border Collateral: Legal Risk and the Conflict of Laws. London: Butterworths, 2002.

Price, Margaret M. Emerging Stock Markets. New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1994.

Ray, Christina I. The Bond Market. Homewood, IL: Business One Irwin, 1993.

Reisner, Ralph, Emilio J. Cardenas and Antonio Mendes, eds. Latin American Sovereign Debt Management. Washington, D.C.: Inter-American Development Bank, 1990.

Rendell, Robert S., ed. International Financial Law. London: Euromoney Publications, 1980.

Rieffel, Lex. Restructuring Sovereign Debt: The Case for Ad Hoc Machinery. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution, 2003.

Riehl, Heinz and Rita Rodriguez. Foreign Exchange & Money Markets. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1977.

Rhodes, William R. Banker to the World: Leadership Lessons From the Front Lines of Global Finance. New York: McGraw-Hill Education, 2011.

Santiso, Javier. The Political Economy of Emerging Markets: Actors Institutions and Financial Crises in Latin America. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003.

Soros, George. The Alchemy of Finance. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 1994.

Sulser, Patricia O. Infrastructure PPPs in the Most Challenging Developing Countries: Closing the Gap. International Financial Law Review, 2018.
Weiss, David M. After the Trade is Made. New York: New York Institute of Finance, 1993.

Willer, Dirk and Chandra, Ram Bala and Lam, Kenneth. Trading Fixed Income and FX in Emerging Markets: A Practitioner's Guide (First Edition). Wiley Finance, 2020.


Andritzky, Jochen R. and Schumacher, Julian. "Long-Term Returns in Distressed Sovereign Bond Markets: How Did Investors Fare?" International Monetary Fund. IMF Working Papers. July 1, 2019.

Aninat, Eduardo and Goodman, Lawrence. "A Path to Positive Debt Workouts." Center for Financial Stability. January 27, 2014.

Asonuma, Tamon and Trebesch, Christoph. “Sovereign Debt Restructurings: Preemptive or Post-Default.” Journal of the European Economic Association. Vol. 14, Issue 1. November 2015, Pages 175-214.

2020 update of monthly default and restructuring dataset, now including start and end dates of 197 sovereign default spells / debt restructurings with foreign banks/bondholders 1970-2020, last updated September 23, 2020.

Bere, Carol. "Trading Up." Global Custodian. February 1998: pp. 122-127.

Bolton, Patrick, Panizza, Ugo and Gulati, Mitu. "Legal Air Cover." Oxford University Press. 2021.

Bosco, David. "The Debt Frenzy." Foreign Policy. July/August 2007: pp. 36-42.

The Bretton Woods Committee’s Sovereign Debt Working Group. "Sovereign Debt: A Critical Challenge." April 2021.

Buchheit, Lee C. "What to Do about Pari Passu." Cleary Gottlieb Steen & Hamilton LLP. August 12, 2013. 

---. "Use of Creditor Committees in Sovereign Debt Workouts." Business Law International. Vol. 10, No. 3 September 2009: pp. 205-217. 

---. "The Absence of Sufficient Temptation." Latin Finance. May 2008.

---. "How Ecuador escaped the Brady bond trap." International Financial Law Review. December 2000. 

---. "Breaking the Sovereign Borrowing Cycle." International Financial Law Review. February 1996.

---. "The Pari Passu Clause Sub Specie Aeternitatis." International Financial Law Review. December 1991.

---. "Moral Hazards and other delights." International Financial Law Review. April 1991.

---. "Sovereign Debtors and Their Bondholders." Unitary Training Programmes on Foreign Economic Relations. Doc. No. 1, 2000.

---. "Alternative Techniques in Sovereign Debt Restructuring." University of Illinois Law Review. Vol. 2 1988: pp. 371-399.

---. "The Capitalization of Sovereign Debt: An Introduction." University of Illinois Law Review. Vol. 2 1988: pp. 401-414.

Buchheit, Lee C. and Gulati, G. Mitu. "The Duty of Creditors to Cooperate in Sovereign Debt Workouts." University of Virginia Law & Legal Theory and Economics Research Paper Series. Draft October 26, 2021.

---. "Avoiding a Lost Decade -- Sovereign Debt Workouts in the Post-Covid Era." The Duke University Law School. October 4, 2020.

---."The Argentine Collective Action Clause Controversy." Capital Markets Law Journal. September 27, 2020.

---. "How to Restructure Venezuelan Debt." July 21, 2017. 

---. "Targeted Subordination of Official Sector Debt." July 15, 2015.

---. "Walking Back from Cyprus." Draft - March 18, 2013.

---. "The Eurozone Debt Crisis - the Options Now." October 8, 2012.

---. "Greek Debt-The Endgame Scenarios." April 18, 2011.  

---. "Drafting a Model Collective Action Clause for Eurozone Sovereign Bonds." April 8, 2011.

---. "How to Restructure Greek Debt." Duke University School of Law. May 7, 2010.

---. "The Coroner’s Inquest.” Business Law International. September 2009.

---. "Odious Debts and Nation-Building: When the Incubus Departs." University of Maine School of Law, Maine Law Review. 2008.

---. "Exit Consents in Sovereign Bond Exchanges."  University of California Los Angeles Law Review.  Vol. 48 October 2000: pp.59-84.

Buchheit, Lee C. and Karpinski, Elizabeth. "Belize's Innovations." Butterworths Journal of International Banking and Financial Law.  May 2007: pp. 278-280.

---. "Grenada's Innovations." Journal of International Banking and Regulation. Issue 4 2006: pp. 227-231.

"Buchheit, Lee C., Gulati, G. Mitu and Tirado, Ignacio. "The Problem of Holdout Creditors in Eurozone Sovereign Debt Restructurings." Cleary Gottlieb Steen & Hamilton/UCLA Law School/Universidad Autónoma de Madrid. January 22, 2013.

Buchheit, Lee C., Gulati, G. Mitu and Thompson, Robert B.  "The Dilemma of Odious Debts." Duke Law Journal.  March 2007.

Buchheit, Lee C. and Pam, Jeremiah S. "The Pari Passu Clause in Sovereign Debt Instruments." Emory Law Journal. Vol. 53 Special Edition 2004: pp. 869-922.

---. "Uruguay's Innovations." Journal of International Banking Law and Regulation. Vol. 19 2004: pp 28-31.

Buckley, Ross P. "A Force for Globalisation: Emerging Markets Debt Trading from 1994 to 1999." University of New South Wales, Faculty of Law Research Series. 2007: Paper 17.

---. "The Role and Potential of Self-Regulatory Organizations: the Emerging Markets Traders Association from 1990 to 2000."  Stanford Journal of Law, Business and Finance, Volume 6:1 2000: pp. 135-151.

---. "The Transformative Potential of a Secondary Market: Emerging Markets Debt Trading From 1983 to 1989." Fordham International Law Journal. Vol. 4 1998: pp. 1152-1238.

---. "Debt Exchanges Revisited: Lessons From Latin America for Eastern Europe." Northwestern Journal of International Law & Business. Vol. 3 1998: pp. 655-684.

---. "Reschedulings as the Groundwork for Secondary Markets in Sovereign Debt."  Denver Journal of International Law and Policy. Winter 1998: pp. 299-309.

---. "The Regulation of the Emerging Markets Loan Market."  Law and Policy in International Business. Fall 1998: pp. 47-110.

---. "The Facilitation of the Brady Plan: Emerging Markets Debt Trading from 1989 to 1993." Fordham International Law Journal. June 1998: pp. 1802-1889.

Buiter, Willem H. and Sibert, Anne. "Restructuring the Debt-Restructuring Process." November 24, 2020.

Center for Financial Stability. "Rule of Law Index (RLI)." November 15, 2011.

Chamberlin, Michael M. "EMTA 2013-2017---An Overview After 30 Years." March 26, 2021. 

---. "EMTA 1994-98: The Golden Age of EM Debt Trading?" December 1, 2015.

---. "EMTA 2008-2012—AN OVERVIEW—From Cowboy Market to Safe Haven?" December 1, 2015.

---. "EMTA’s 25th Year—A Look Back to: EMTA 1999 to 2007: The EM Debt Trading and Investment Market Matures and Mainstreams." September 8, 2015.

---. "CAC’s – Unfinished Business?" April 30, 2004.

---. "The Pari Passu Clause -- What is Fair Treatment?" April 1, 2004.

---. "The IMF’s Sovereign Bankruptcy Proposal and the Quest for More Orderly Sovereign Work-Outs." 2002.

---. "A Casual Observer’s Commentary on the Taylor Proposal and EMCA’s Model Covenants for New Sovereign Debt Issues (5/3/02 draft)." August 9, 2002.

---. "At the Frontier of Exit Consents." November 9, 2001.

---. "Today's Emerging Markets: Building an Asset Class with More Meaningful Investor Rights."  February 15, 2001.

---. "The Brady Plan - A Decade of Progress." EMTA Bulletin. 1st Quarter 2000.

---. "The Brady Plan - The First 10 Years and Beyond." Latin Finance. February 2000: pp. 60-61.

---. "Emerging Markets Clearing Corporation Launched by EMTA and NSCC." International Financial Law Review. Vol. 1999: pp. 11-14.

---. "EMCC Transforms Clearing for Brady Bonds." International Financial Law Review. June 1999: pp. 11-14.

---. "EMTA Offers Electronic Matching for Brady Bonds and Loans." International Financial Law Review. June 1996: pp. 48-50.

---. "The Emerging Markets and the Marketplace." Journal of Emerging Markets. Vol. 1 1996: pp. 4-6.

---. "EMTA Offers Multilateral Netting Facility." International Financial Law Review. May 1996: pp. 41-42.

---. "Worst May Be Over for Emerging Markets." American Banker. May 1995: pp. 5-6.

Chamberlin, Michael M. and Werner, Aviva. "EMTA's Standard Terms Speed Up Loan Settlements." International Financial Law Review. April 1996: pp. 48-50.

Chamberlin, Michael M. and Saunders, Robert. "EMTA's Master Agreement for Emerging Markets Debt Options."  International Financial Law Review. October 1994: pp. 31-32.

Chamberlin, Michael M. and Winslade, Thomas. "Regulating the LDC Debt Markets." International Financial Law Review. August 1992: pp. 16-17.

Chamberlin, Michael M., Gruson, Michael and Weltcheck, Paul. "Sovereign Debt Exchanges." University of Illinois Law Review. Vol. 2 1988: pp. 415-480.

Cheng, Gong, Diaz-Cassou, Javier and Erce, Aitor. "The Macroeconomic Effects of Official Debt Restructuring: Evidence from the Paris Club." SSRN. European Stability Mechanism Working Paper No. 21. December 2016.

Clark, John. "The Structure, Growth and Recent Performance of the Latin American Bond Market." FRBNY Research Paper. #9416 October 1994.

---. "Debt Reduction and Market Reentry Under the Brady Plan."  FRBNY Quarterly Review. Winter 1993-94: pp. 38-62.

Cooper J. Richard and Walker A. Mark. "Venezuela’s Restructuring: A Realistic Framework." Cleary Gottlieb Steen & Hamilton LLP. September 19, 2017.

Cruces, Juan J. and Trebesch, Christoph. "Sovereign Defaults: The Price of Haircuts." American Economic Journal; Macroeconomics. July 2013.

2014 update of haircut dataset, now including 187 sovereign debt restructurings with foreign banks/bondholders 1970-2013, last updated August 7, 2014.

Online Appendix: Accompanying “Sovereign Defaults: The Price of Haircuts.

---. "Sovereign Defaults: The Price of Haircuts." CESifo Working Paper No. 3604. Category 7: Monetary Policy and international Finance. October 2011.  For Summary, please Click Here

Cymrot, Mark A. "Barricades at the IMF: Creating a Municipal Bankruptcy Model for Foreign States."  International Lawyer. Winter 2002.

D'Ambrosio, Mary. "10 Years of the Brady Markets." Emerging Markets Investor. November 1999: pp. 13-16.

Das, Udaibir S., Papaioannou, Michael G. and Trebesch, Christoph. "Sovereign Debt Restructurings 1950–2010: Literature Survey, Data, and Stylized Facts." International Monetary Fund. August 2012.

List of Sovereign Debt Restructurings with the Paris Club 1950-2010 (updated November 2012).

DeSieno, Timothy B. and Dobson, Katherine. "Necessity Trumps Law: Lessons from Emerging Markets for Stressed Developed Markets?" INSOL International. January 2013. 

DeSieno, Timothy B. and Carey, Robert T. "Changing Terms of Bond Indentures. Are Issuers Overreaching in Consent Solicitations?" New York Law Journal. November 21, 2005.

Debevoise, Whitney and Orta, David. "The Class Action Threat to Sovereign Workouts." International Financial Law Review. July 2003: pp. 41-44.

Dornbusch, Rudi. “Emerging Markets Crises: Origins and Remedies.” July 1999.

---. "What Future for International Financial Institutions.” May 1999.

---. "Capital Controls: An Idea Whose Time Has Gone.” March 1998.

Eichengreen, Barry. “When To Dollarize.” March 2000.
(paper presented at the Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas’ Conference on Dollarization)

---. "Does Mercosur Need a Single Currency?" October 1998.
(paper prepared for the IPEA conference ALCA and Mercosul: The Brazilian Economy and the Processes of Subregional and Hemispheric Integration, Brasilia)

Eichengreen, Barry and Christof Ruhl. “The Bail-In Problem: Systematic Goals, Ad Hoc Means.” February 2000.

EMTA Policy Paper. "Burden-Sharing in 2001: Now is the Time to Reform the Paris Club."  February 13, 2001.

EMTA Publication. "Is Burden-Sharing Being Pushed Too Far?" September 1999.

EMTA Publication. "What is Appropriate G-7 and Official Sector Policy toward Rescheduling Eurobonds?" April 1999.

Emerging Markets Committee of the International Organization of Securities Commissions in Collaboration with the World Bank Group. "Development of Corporate Bond Markets in the Emerging Markets - Final Report." November 2011.

Fischer, Stanley. “Learning the Lessons of Financial Crises: The Roles of the Public and Private Sectors.” December 1999. (speech delivered at EMTA’s 1999 Annual Meeting)

Georgieva, Kristalina, Pazarbasioglu, Ceyla, and Weeks-Brown, Rhoda. "Reform of the International Debt Architecture is Urgently Needed." International Monetary Fund. October 1, 2020.

Gallup, John Luke, and Jeffrey Sachs, with Andrew D. Mellinger. “Geography and Economic Development.” March 1999. 
(paper presented at the Annual World Bank Conference on Development Economics)

Gelpern, Anna. "Central Bank Drift: Eupdate Extra." May 9, 2011. 

---. "Ways of Treading Water II: Eupdate Greece."  May 6, 2011. 

---. "Ways of Treading Water I: Eupdate Portugal." May 6, 2011.  

---. Contribution to "Expert Roundup: Eurozone Problem for the United States." Council on Foreign Relations. May 14, 2010.

---. "How I Stopped Holding My Breath for a Greek Restructuring and Learned to Love Illiquency Support." Roubini Global Economics Blog. May 10, 2010. 

Gelpern, Anna, Horn, Sebastian, Morris, Scott, Parks, Brad and Trebesch, Christoph. "How China Lends: A Rare Look into 100 Debt Contracts with Foreign Governments." March 2021.

Griffin, Starla. "Time for More Transparency on Sovereign Debt." Global Arbitration Review. May 5, 2020.

Gulati, G. Mitu and Klee, Kenneth N. "Sovereign Piracy."  The Business Lawyer.  Vol. 56 February 2001:  pp. 635-651.

Hausmann, Ricardo. “Should There Be Five Currencies or One Hundred and Five.” Foreign Policy. Fall 1999.

Heller, Benjamin and Virketis, Pijus. "Prefer to Defer: Has the Time for 'Bendybonds' Finally Come?" November 9, 2020.

Horn, Sebastian, Reinhart, Carmen M. and Trebesch, Christoph. “China Overseas Lending.” NBER and Kiel WP. April 16, 2020.

April 2020 update of China debt stock dataset, estimates by country and year, 2000-2017 (direct loans) Last Updated: April 2020.

Institute of International Finance. “Strengthening Relations between Emerging Market Authorities and Private Investors/Creditors: A Country-Focused Approach to Crisis Avoidance.” April 1999.

---. "Involving the Private Sector in the Resolution of Financial Crises in Emerging Markets.” April 1999.

International Monetary Fund. "Issues in Restructuring of Sovereign Domestic Debt." November 2021. 

---. "The International Architecture for Resolving Sovereign Debt Involving Private-Sector Creditors - Recent Developments, Challenges and Reform Options." September 23, 2020.

---.  “State-Contingent Debt Instruments for Sovereigns.” May 2017.
Johnson, Adam. "Interim Injunctions and International Jurisdiction." C.J.Q. Vol. 27, Issue 4 2008: pp. 433-444.

Kopf, Christian and Xafa, Miranda. "A Proper Yield Curve for Greece to Kick-Start Financial Intermediation." The Centre for European Policy Studies. December 10, 2013.

Krugman, Paul. “Monomoney Mania: Why Fewer Currencies Aren’t Necessarily Better.” Slate On-line. April 15, 1999.

---. "The Confidence Game: How Washington Worsened Asia’s Crash.” New Republic On-line. October 5, 1998.

---. "Dutch Tulips and Emerging Markets." Foreign Affairs. November/December 1995.

---. "The Myth of Asia’s Miracle.” Foreign Affairs. November/December 1994.

Lerrick, Adam. "Ecuador’s Poor Will Restructure Emerging Market Debt." Financial Times. February 13, 2007.

---. "The IMF's Immunity to Loss is in Jeopardy." Financial Times. January 11, 2005.

Levine, Matt. "Who Can Pay Venezuela's Debts?"  Bloomberg Opinion.  July 12, 2019.

Loser, M. Claudio. "Mexico: Can it Have a Prosperous Future Without Effective Rule of Law?" Centennial Group Latin America. December 7, 2011.

---. "Mexico 2011: How a Landmark Bankruptcy Case Reinforces the Middle-Income Trap." El Financiero. November 18, 2011.

---. "Mexico 2011: Un Caso Emblematico de Quiebra Agudiza la Trampa de Ingresos Medios." El Financiero. November 18, 2011. (Spanish Version).

---. "An New Vision for Mexico 2042: Achieving Prosperity for All." Emerging Markets Forum. September, 2011.

---. "Mexico: How Far Have its Institutions Really Come?" Inter-American Dialogue's. April 6, 2011.

---. "How Much Danger Does Mexico Face in This Turbulent Time?" Inter-American Dialogue's. June 1, 2009.

Muehring, Kevin. "Emerging-Markets Debt Comes of Age." Institutional Investor. April 1994: pp. 63-68.

Murno, Jonathan. "EMTA 2013-2017 – Promoting the EM Asset Class." March 26, 2021.

---. "EMTA 2008-2012 – Promoting the EM Asset Class and Market Transparency." December 1, 2015.

Naim, Moses. “Washington Consensus or Washington Confusion.” Foreign Policy. Spring 2000.

Nelson, Rebecca M. and Ribando Seelke, Clare. "Venezuela: Background and U.S. Policy." Congressional and Research Service. December 11, 2017.

Payton Jacobs, Leslie. "NDF Trading Buffeted by Regulatory Headwinds, 2013 – 2017." March 26, 2021.

---. "EMTA at Work in the FX Space 2008-2012." December 1, 2015. 

Porzecanski, Arturo C. "Argentina and the IMF: Another Default in the Works?" Americas Quarterly. March 3, 2021.

---. "The PDVSA 2020 Bond: Time for a Solution." Financial Times. November 18, 2019.

---. "Human Rights and Sovereign Debts in the Context of Property and Creditor Rights,"Oxford University Press. 2018: pp. 45-66.

---. "Argentina: From Gradualism to Shock Therapy." AulaBlog. September 4, 2018.

---. "Debunking the Relevance of the Debt-to-GDP Ratio." World Economics. January-March 2018.

---. "Sovereign Debt Restructuring After Argentina," American University. April 25, 2017.
---. "The Origins of Argentina's Litigation and Arbitration Saga," 2002-2016.  

---. "Borrowing and Debt: How Do Sovereigns Get into Trouble?" Oxford University Press. December 18, 2013. 

---. "Behind the 2012 Greek Default and Restructuring." American University. May 2013.

---. "Mexico's Retrogression: Implications of a Bankruptcy Reorganization Gone Wrong." Center for Strategic & International Studies, Hemisphere Focus. November 14, 2011.

---. "From Rogue Creditors to Rogue Debtors: Implications of Argentina's Default." Chicago Journal of International Law. Volume 6, No. 1, Summer 2005: pp. 311-332.

---. "The Constructive Role of Private Creditors. Reprinted from "Dealing Justly with Debt." Ethics and International Affairs. Volume 17, No. 2, with the kind permission of the Carnegie Council on Ethics and International Affairs.

---. "A Critique of Sovereign Bankruptcy Initiatives." Business Economics. January 2003.

---. “Killing the Golden Goose.” Emerging Markets Investor. November 1999.

Rauch, Robert L. "Mexico's Concurso Mercantil from an International Bondholder's Perspective." Gramercy Advisors LLC. December 7, 2011.

Rediker, Douglas A. and Ubide, Angel. "The IMF Is Courting New Risks with a Change in Policy on Debt Restructuring." Peterson Institute for International Economics. January 28, 2014.

Reinhart, Carmen and Trebesch, Christoph. "Sovereign Debt Relief and its Aftermath." SSRN. CESifo Working Paper Series No. 5422. June 30. 2015.

Ribando Seelke, Clare, Nelson, Rebecca M., Brown, Phillip and Margesson, Rhoda.  "Venezuela: Background and U.S. Relations." Congressional Research Service.  June 4, 2019. 

Sachs, Jeffrey. "Do We Need An International Lender of Last Resort?" 1995.
(Frank D. Graham Lecture at Princeton)

Schneider, Benu. “What is the Evidence on Recovery Values and Efficacy of Creditor Committees in a Sovereign Debt Restructuring?” Capital Markets Law Journal. September 7, 2018.

Schroeder, Christoph. "Haircut Size, Haircut Type and the Probability of Serial Sovereign Debt Restructurings." SSRN. ZEW - Centre for European Economic Research Discussion Paper No. 14-126. December 8, 2014.
Schubert, Martin W. "Ecuador’s Default, Burden Sharing, and The Future of Brady Bonds." 2000. 

---. "The Impact of the Far East Crisis on Latin American Debt Markets." Council of the Americas Conference. October 16, 1997. 

---. "The Changing World of LDC Debt Trading-Merging of the New Issue and Old Debt Markets, The Special Role of Mexico." Mexico Capital Markets Workshop Conference. June 20-21, 1991. 

---. "The Secondary Market in LDC Debt-1990 and Beyond, Third Annual Latin America Financial Forecast Conference. September 29-30, 1989. 

---. Address delivered at The Washington University’s International Affairs Program Seminar. February 25, 1988. 

---. Address delivered at The Heritage Foundation Conference. January 21, 1987. 

---. "New Measures to Defuse the Mexican Debt Crisis - Use of Debt for Equity Conversion and Debt for Non Traditional Export Trade Exchange." Mexico-U.S. Business Committee, 41st Plenary Meeting. November 7, 1986. 

Schumacher, Julian, Trebesch, Christoph and Enderlein, Henrik. “Sovereign Defaults in Court." IFW Kiel Institute for the World Economy. March 2018.

2018 version of sovereign debt litigation database covering sovereign debt litigation events in defaults and restructurings 1970-2010.

---.  "Sovereign Defaults in Court." December 31, 2013.

Schwarcz, Steven L. “A Model-law Approach to Restructuring Unsustainable Sovereign Debt.” October 2017.

---.  “Sovereign Debt Restructuring: A Model-Law Approach.” 2016

Scott, S. Hal. "Sovereign Debt Default: Cry for the United States, not Argentina." Washington Legal Foundation. Working Paper Series No. 140, September 2006.

Stiglitz, Joseph. “The Insider: What I Learned at the World Economic Crisis.” New Republic On-line. April 17, 2000.

Stiglitz, Joseph & Lyn Squire. “International Development: Is It Possible?” Foreign Policy. Spring 1998: pp. 138-152. 

Stolper, Antonia E. and Dougherty, Sean. "Collective Action Clauses: How the Argentina Litigation Changed the Sovereign Debt Markets." Capital Markets Law Journal. 2017.

Vogel, Frank and Rhodes, William R. "BANK-FUND Facing the Rising Challenges of Corruption." Bretton Woods Committee. July 1, 2019.

Walker, Mark. and Cooper, Richard. "Venezuela's Restructuring: A Path Forward." Emerging Markets Restructuring Journal. Issue No. 9. Summer 2019.

Weidemaier, Mark and Gulati, Mitu. " Evaluating Venezuela's Guidelines for Debt Restructuring." Credit Slips. July 6, 2019.

Werner, Aviva. "EMTA 2013 to 2017: Against a backdrop of Continuing Crises in Lat-Am, the Market Focuses More Attention on Frontier Markets." March 26, 2021.

---. "EMTA 2008 to 2012: As the EM Fixed Income Debt Trading and Investment Market Continues to Mature and Mainstream, EMTA’s Role Focuses on New Topics (and a Few Older Ones)." December 1, 2015.

Westlake, Melvyn. "Guardian of Faith." Emerging Markets Investor. October 1994.

Wilson, Neil. "State of Emergence." Futures & Options World. September 1994: pp.56-59.

Winslade, Thomas. "EMTA’s Early Years (1992 and 1993): EMTA Emerges as an Independent Trade Association for the Emerging Markets Trading Industry." December 1, 2015.

Wolfson, Bruce. "EMTA’s Beginnings." December 1, 2015.

Wood, Philip R. "Pari Passu Clauses - What Do They Mean?" Butterworths Journal of International Banking and Financial Law. November 2003.

Zandstra, Deborah, Zonis, Jon, Triaca, Hugo and DeMarco, Jennifer. "Proposed Amendment to New York Banking Law through New Article 7." May 2021.